REVIEW OF LITERATURE FOR MY SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT

This science fair project is on the effect of bleach on different materials used for clothing/pants. There are three things that are important in this project. They are: denim, chemical changes, cotton, polyester, and bleach.

The first thing is denim. Denim comes from a French cloth-braiding method called De Nimes (Mary Bellis). Denim is actually plain white until a worker in the denim mill dyes it to either be blue, using indigo dyes, or colored, using sulferic dyes (Bellis). Denim can be used for jeans, shorts, capris, overalls, skirts, dresses, hats, jackets, shirts, swimwear, suits, boots, shoes, sneakers, bags, purses, jewelry, belts, seat covers, footstool covers, bean bag chairs, director syle chairs, and lampshades (Bellis). Between 1973 and 1975, Volkswagon had a car with an all denim trim on the inside of it (Bellis). As of 2007, the totalprofit of all denim profits are $51,006,000,000 in US Dollars (Bellis). The continent with the most denim mills is Asia, with 401 (Bellis). Most denim is washed after it becomes clothing to prevent it from shrinking (Bellis). Experts on clothing say its prefered to use dry denim for outside use and working, while distressed denim is not (Bellis).

The next things are chemical changes. The process of bleach affecting materials is a chemical change (Alton Biggs). During a chemical change the identity of a substence changes due to its chemical properties and forms a new substance(s) (Biggs). When the iron particles in steel are exposed to oxygen and water in the air, the elements combine to form rust. The same process occurs with silver turning into tarnish, except there is no water involved (Biggs). The easiest way to spot a chemical change is if the color or the odor of the object has changed (Biggs). Leaves on a tree change when the chloroyphll in the leaves evaporate into an odorless gass. Since the chlorophyll is what gives the leaves its green color, the leaves turn to a brownish-red color (Biggs). Many substances must absorb energy to go through a chemical change (Biggs). When perishable food spoils, it also goes through a chemical change (Biggs).A major difference between a physical change and a chemical change is that a chemical change cannot be changed back to its original product through physical means. For example: pancakes cannot be turned back to batter, dynamite when exploded cannot be turned back into a stick, and wax on a candlestick when burned is a gas, so it cannot go back to a candle again. That does not mean, though, that mass in the candle was destroyed. It just means that the matter that was originally wax is now an odorless gass that is in the air, which is what normally carries the scent to fill up a room with its aroma (Biggs).

The third thing is cotton.There are four types of cotton: Upland Cotton, found in Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Southern Florida, is 90% of the world's cotton production. Extra-Long Staple Cotton, found in South America, is 8% of the world's cotton production. Tree Cotton, found in Pakistan, is 1% of the world's cotton production. Levant Cotton, found in Southern Africa, is also 1% of the world's cotton production (D.Clayton Brown) . Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll-a protective capsule- which protects the actual cotton fiber which, in Science, is called Gossypium (Brown) . The English word cotton comes from the Arabic word "qutn", which is derived from the Spanish word algodon, which means "swab" (Brown). The first known proven use of cotton dates back to c.5,000BC in ancient cites of Harrapa (in present-day Pakistan), and Chicken Itza (in present-day Mexico), although historians believe it has beeen used science the Copper Age (approx. 13,000BC-10,000BC). Even though the use of cotton dates back to such early times, the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1794 rapidly spread the production of the already booming industry (Brown). There are an estimated amount of 25,000,000 tons of coton produced anually (Brown). China is the world's largest producer of cotton, but the United States is the world's largest exporter of cotton (Brown).

The fourth thing is polyester. Some polyester is biodegradable, but other synthetic polyesters are not (Sarah Kadolf). Polyester is used for bottles, films, canoes, crystal displays (liquidized), holograms, filters, tapes, wire, guitars, pianos, vehicle interiors, and yacht interiors (Kadolf). Some polyester materials are added with other elements and are named other materials (for example, Chinese Silk) (Kadolf). People produce over 49 million tons of polyester a year (Kadolf). Polyester is a chemical fiber known to the world of Science as Polyethylene Therephalate, or PET for short (Kadolf). Polyester fabrics provide many advantages over natural fibers, like cotton and wool, by having less wrinkles as often, its durability, and its retention to absorb less colors (Kadolf). The first use for polyester was in the early 20th century as a seal in jet engines (Kadolf). The first stage for making polyeater is the melt stage, in which the strands of fiber are melted into a liquid compound (Kadolf). Next, the liquids are seperated into five different tubes: Staple Fibers; used for bottles of water, beer, juice, and detergents, POY, DTY, and FDY filaments; used for A-PET film, Technical Yarn and Tire Cord; used for thermorforming, Non-woven and Spunbond; BO-PET Biaxal oriented film, and, Mono-filament; used for straping.

The last thing is bleach. The first known use of bleach dates all the way back to c.840AD (Chris Aspin). The modern bleach (the chemical compound that we use today) was created by French scientist Louise Jacques Thenard in 1818 (Aspin). There are two ways for chemical bleaches to use dyes (which have molecules that contain a chemical substanse called chromophores): 1) by breaking up the chemical bonds that are in the chromophores, which then transforms the molecule into a non-chromophore producing molecule or changes the chromophore to not absorb light, or 2) by converting the double bonds of material inside the chromophore, which also makes it not able to absorb light (Aspin).


Works Cited:

he citation is not a bullet point. The annotation is a bullet point.
Bellis, Mary, BBC News, Nick Coe, Sean Slater, and Handlebar Magazine. "Denim."Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Sept. 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denim>.
  • This website is Wikipedia, and online encyclopedia made by people who are anonymous, but know what they are talking about. Wikipedia also has an agreement that another author cannot vandalize (a.k.a. edit without permission, like for example: a cat is a descendant of the human. A cat is not a descendant of a human therefore the person that wrote that sentence vandalized that persons page) a page. This Wikipedia page is also accurate because most of the information comes from a primary source.

Biggs, Alton, Lucy Daniel, PhD, Ralph M. Feather Jr., PhD, Susan Leach Snyder, and Dinah Zike. "Physical and Chemical Changes." Florida Science-Grade 7. Columbus: McGraw Hill-Glencoe, 2006. 48-52. Print. Florida Science.
  • This is a good source of information because this is a Science textbook, which is approved and checked by multiple teachers and scientists

Brown, D. Clayton, Audrey H. Ensminger, James E. Konlande, USDA, C. Wayne Smith, Joe Tom Cothren, Alfred Charles True, Stephen H. Yafa, Allan A. Metcalf, B. Millie, C. Moultherat, M. Tengberg, J.F. Hacquet, Burton Stein, Wisseman & Williams, D.Q. Fuller, Columbia Encyclopedia, The, Julian Roche, Lisa W. Huckell, and K. Wu. "Cotton."Wikipedia. Ed. W.G. Moseley and L.C. Gray. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Sept. 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton>.
  • Wikipedia is a good source of information because if there are any errors that somebody said, then someone else would change it to the correct term.

Encyclopedia Britanica, Chris Aspin, L.J. Thenard, Tatjana Topalovic, Neile Milne, Simon Q. Field, Louis A. Bloomfield, U. Jakob, J. Winter, M. Ilbert, P.C.F. Graf, D. Ozcelik, J.E. Harrison, J. Schultz, E.L. Thomas, J.M. Albrich, C.A. McCarthy, J.K. Hurst, F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Rosette Rizk-Ouani, Michael Ferriol, Josette Gazet, Saugier-Cohen Adad, Marie Therese, Lenntech, Intratec, World Health Organization, H. Vogt, J. Balej, J.E. Bennett, P. Wintzer, S.A. Sheikh, P. Gallone, S. Vasuedevan, K. Pelin, Y. Ni, and X. Wang. "Bleach." Wikipedia. 26 Sept. 2013. Wikimedia Foundation. 07 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bleach>.

  • ** Wikipedia is a good source of information because if there are any errors that somebody said, then someone else would change it to the correct term.

Kadolph, Sarah, Anna Langford, Dominick V. Rosato, Donald V. Rosato, and Matthew V. Rosato. "Polyester." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Sept. 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyester>


  • This website is Wikipedia, and online encyclopedia made by people who are anonymous, but know what they are talking about. Wikipedia also has an agreement that another author cannot vandalize (a.k.a. edit without permission, like for example: a cat is a descendant of the human. A cat is not a descendant of a human therefore the person that wrote that sentence vandalized that persons page) a page. This Wikipedia page is also accurate because most of the information comes from a primary source.